“Everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer,
  Because it teaches us how to think. “  
                                                                                                                                -STEVE JOBS         

Nowadays nearly every field requires some form of computer programming (Entertainment, Agriculture, Education, Industrial machines and equipments etc.). So, first we are required to know what computer programming is? 
Programming is nothing but in simple words, it is teaching a computer how to do something. Computer science branch deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity but they only supported the human mind, aiding in computations as complex as multiplication and division. Since then, the researches in this field have not stopped. There is a huge scarcity of people in the computer science industry.
Over the next 10 years there will be over 1.4 million jobs in computer science and only 4 lakh people qualified for these jobs. That’s a shortage of a million people! It’s a field where a lot is yet to be discovered and researches and developments are going on at an intense rate.
Now it’s just limited by our imagination that what kind of understanding we can build in computers that can do computations and tasks which were previously impossible.
A lot of work is being done in computer since nowadays and every second we are discovering something new and astonishing, some of these discoveries and researches have been listed below,
  • Daydreaming Simulated by Computer Model :

Researchers created the computer model based on the dynamics of brain cells and the many connections those cells make with their neighbours and with cells in other brain regions. They hope the model will help them understand why certain portions of the brain work together when a person daydreams or is mentally idle. This, in turn, may one day help doctors better diagnose and treat brain injuries.

  • New Model To Improve Vehicle To Vehicle Interaction for ‘Intelligent Transportation’:

Imagine a transportation system where vehicles communicate directly with each other in real time, giving drivers warnings about traffic delays, allowing a single driver to control multiple vehicles or routing vehicles around hazardous road conditions. Those are all aspects of the "intelligent transportation" concept. And researchers have developed a model to improve the clarity of the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) transmissions needed to make that concept a reality.

  • Computer as smart as a 4 Year Old kid:

Artificial and natural knowledge researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have IQ-tested one of the best available artificial intelligence systems to see how intelligent it really is. Turns out it's about as smart as the average 4-year-old.

  • Computational Linguistics: 

This field deals with understanding and developing computational theories of human language. Such theories allow us to process natural languages through computational perspective. CL has numerous sub-fields which include Speech recognition and Speech synthesis, Machine learning, Machine translation, Computational Semantics and Cognitive Science.
This is one of the most relevant and active areas of research and is often grouped under Artificial Intelligence. Talking Robots, SIRI, Wolfram Alpha, Google Translate, all are outcomes of research in this field.

  • Quantum Computing: 

Quantum computers can harness the power of atoms and molecules to perform memory and processing tasks which can do computations much faster than Silicon computers.

  • Program Structure :

 Computer science is constantly reinventing how to represent functionality most intuitively, concisely, and flexibly. First there were procedural languages, and then object oriented programming. Now program structure is represented as a hybrid mixture of loosely typed languages, open source libraries, and decentralized multithreaded cloud architectures over multi-layer data representations. What are the central patterns underlying the optimality of these new architectures? How are open APIs changing the definition of an application?

  • Computer Security : 

Computer security is the central contact point at which the irresistible force of openness meets the immovable object of privacy. Whether this is encryption, security layers, permission models, or system integrity techniques, the future is both open and protected. How to achieve both?

  • Boundary between hardware and software : 

Since the formulation of the Von Neumann architecture, this has been under continuous evolution in CS. Hardware is becoming more programmable and configurable (GPU computing, FPGAs), and hardware is adapting to software (hyper threading and virtualization features in CPUs). Cloud computing is arguably a form of soft-configurable large-scale hardware infrastructure.

A lot has been discovered but there is a lot yet to be discovered and it is our responsibility that we take up this task and make the world a better place to live.
I would like to end this by quoting a statement made by Mr. Gabe (creator-VALVE),

“Computer programmers are the wizards of the twenty first century.”

-Gabe (creator – VALVE)